800 posts in the category “Conditions”

How many kinds of diabetes are there? Lots. Explore type 1, type 2, LADA and more

Posted November 29th, 2017 by

Confused about the different types of diabetes? Never heard of other forms of diabetes beyond “1” and “2”? You’re not alone. As American Diabetes Month comes to a close, we’re shedding some light on this topic. Overall, more than 30 million Americans (9.4 percent of the U.S. population) have diabetes. Here’s a guide to help you and your loved ones learn more about the various kinds of diabetes. Join PatientsLikeMe today to connect with and learn from members living with 10+ different forms of diabetes.

Well-known (but still misunderstood) types of diabetes

People are most familiar with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, so let’s start with some stats, facts and myths about those:

  • Type 1 diabetes – About 5% of people with diabetes have type 1 diabetes (previously called insulin-dependent or juvenile diabetes), according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed in children, teens, and young adults, but it can develop at any age (some members on PatientsLikeMe say they were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes in their 60s). It’s caused by an autoimmune reaction (where the body attacks itself by mistake) that destroys the cells in the pancreas that make insulin (the hormone that lets blood sugar into the body’s cells for energy). Because of this autoimmune attack, the pancreas makes little to no insulin (so people need to inject insulin). Diet and lifestyle habits don’t cause type 1 diabetes. People with type 1 diabetes can eat normal, healthy meals and have sweets (in moderation, like the general population) when they follow their treatment plan. Connect with 3,000+ members with type 1 diabetes on PatientsLikeMe.
  • Type 2 diabetes – At least 90% of Americans with diabetes have type 2 diabetes, the CDC says. It usually develops in people over age 45, but more and more children, teens and young adults are also getting diagnosed. In most people with type 2 diabetes, the pancreas makes extra insulin because cells in the body have become “insulin resistant” — they don’t respond normally to allow blood sugar in as energy. Many people think that being overweight is the only risk factor for type 2 diabetes. While weight can play a role in the condition, other risk factors include family history, ethnicity and age. Most overweight people never develop diabetes, and many people who do develop type 2 diabetes are at a normal weight or only slightly overweight, according to the American Diabetes Association. Treatments for type 2 diabetes range from dietary changes and exercise to oral or injected medications. Connect with 19,000 members with type 2 diabetes on PatientsLikeMe.

Lesser-known types of diabetes

Research has uncovered many more types of diabetes than just types 1 and 2. In a 2013 study, the authors concluded that “the latest scientific findings no longer support such a rigid classification of diabetes…. Rather there appears to be a continuum of forms and a mixture of diabetes phenotypes.”

Other known forms of diabetes include:

  • Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) – Gestational diabetes affects pregnant women toward the middle or end of pregnancy, and usually goes away shortly after giving birth. But in some cases, diabetes doesn’t resolve after pregnancy, and it is then considered type 2 diabetes.
  • “Type 1.5” or LADA – Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA, nicknamed “Type 1.5”) is a type of diabetes is usually diagnosed after age 30, in which people show signs of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, the CDC says. Some experts believe that LADA is a slowly developing kind of type 1 diabetes because patients have autoimmune antibodies in the pancreas. Many people with LADA are initially misdiagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Most people with LADA still produce their own insulin when first diagnosed but require insulin injections months or years later.
  • MODY, NDM and other monogenic forms of diabetes – Some rare forms of diabetes result from mutations in a single gene and are called monogenic. Monogenic forms of diabetes account for about 1 to 5 percent of all cases of diabetes in young people, according the National Institutes of Health. In most cases, the gene mutation is inherited; in the remaining cases the gene mutation develops spontaneously. Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) usually first occurs during adolescence or early adulthood, but it is often mistaken for type 1 diabetes or undiagnosed until later in life. Neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM) is a monogenic form of diabetes that occurs in the first 6 months of life (earlier than type 1 diabetes occurs), and remains a lifelong condition for about half of those diagnosed.

Check out BeyondType1.org’s roundup of other rare kinds of diabetes.

Living with a rare or confusing kind of diabetes that doesn’t fit neatly into “type 1” or “type 2”? Connect with members of these smaller diabetes-related communities on PatientsLikeMe to learn from their experiences: LADAMODYdiabetes insipiduscystic fibrosis-related diabetesmedication-induced diabetes mellitussteroid-induced diabetes mellituspancreatogenous diabetes and prediabetes. If you have another kind of diabetes, please leave a comment.

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“What do you mean I can’t bring my service animal in?” Member Craig talks life with fibromyalgia and service dogs.

Posted November 27th, 2017 by

Craig Braquet (woofhound) is living with fibromyalgia and severe degenerative disc disease, the result of a multi-car accident in 1979. We first introduced Craig when he joined the 2015-2016 PatientsLikeMe Team of Advisors, but today we introduce his dogs, Luna, Oliver and Dakota (check out their cameo in Craig’s recent #MoreThan video). See what Craig has to say about training his own service dogs, taking them into public places, and how they’ve helped him manage his condition.

Service dog for fibromyalgia

Craig with his service dogs Luna (left) and Oliver (right).

Finding motivation to “get out of bed and rejoin society”

“Luna is where we began my journey with personal service animals,” Craig says. Luna, a Great Dane, is now retired from being a service animal, though she’s still one of Craig’s closest companions. “Before Luna, I stayed at home, my pain levels were more than I could handle. I spent most of my days sleeping, trying to heal my body from the stresses of constant pain, my illness had overshadowed me.”

Craig says Luna gave him a new purpose in life, and he found that training her to be a balance and stability service animal gave him the motivation to “get out of bed and rejoin society.” Regular exercise is beneficial for people living with fibromyalgia, and Luna helped make that effort worthwhile.

Since Luna, Craig has adopted Oliver and Dakota, also Great Danes. “Oliver took to his Service Animal Training just like Luna did,” he says. “He learned quickly and looked out for me in public, he’s calm in noisy, stressful situations and doesn’t pay attention to any other animals when he has his service gear on.”

When service dogs are turned away: Know your rights (and responsibilities)

While the American Disibilities Act (ADA) has clear guidelines about the rights of those with service animals, Craig has found that not all establishments are aware of these laws. On a recent trip to Truth or Consequences, a small town in New Mexico, he was not allowed to bring Luna into a local hot springs spa, even when he explained that she was his service animal.

Unfortunately, Craig has had several similar experiences with his dogs. His advice on what to do in this situation? “When you have a legitimately trained service animals and you are turned down by an establishment, you’ll get the quickest assistance if you demand your rights and require them to call the police instead of you making the call. This way the police can help to educate the proprietor when they arrive.”

Craig says that while knowing and understanding your rights as a service animal owner is important, so is the behavior of your animal, “the most important thing here is to make sure you have an impeccably trained service animal before you attempt to somewhat ‘force’ your rights. Even a trained Service Animal can be denied access if the dog is unruly, loud, or poorly trained.”

How to get a service animal

Service, therapy and emotional support animals: What’s the difference?

  • The ADA says a service animal is “any dog that is individually trained to do work or perform tasks for the benefit of an individual with a disability, including a physical, sensory, psychiatric, intellectual or other mental disability.” Other species of animals, trained or not, aren’t considered service animals. The ADA doesn’t require professional training for service animals, and people with disabilities have the right to train the dog themselves (but state and federal laws differ, so make sure to read up on your state’s laws). Check out this FAQ to learn more.
  • A therapy animal is an animal that’s been trained to help lift the spirits of people other than its handler. Therapy animals often visit places like hospitals and nursing homes to cheer up the people living there, though their handlers are not given public access rights like those of service dogs and their owners.
  • Emotional support animals provide companionship, relieve loneliness, and can help with depression, anxiety and other mental health conditions, but don’t need to have any special training to perform tasks that assist people with disabilities. While emotional support animals are often used as part of a medical treatment plan to provide therapy to their owners, they’re not considered service animals under the ADA.

On PatientsLikeMe

See who’s tracking their experience with service animals on PatientsLikeMe, and check out what some members have said in more than 150 treatment evaluations on pets.

FIbromyalgia and service dogs

“Always for the better”

When we asked him how his animals have impacted his health, Craig simply said “always for the better.” Their companionship provides him with physical and emotional support, and they act as “the antidote to any stressful day.”

Do you have a service animal? Share in the comments how they’ve impacted your life and your health. And join the conversation with others discussing this in the PatientsLikeMe forum

 

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